Huisman, J. and Van Oostveen, P. and Weissing, F. J. (1999) Critical depth and critical turbulence: two different mechanisms for the development of phytoplankton blooms. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 1781-1797. ISSN 0024-3590.
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A turbulent diffusion model shows that there are two different mechanisms for the development of phytoplankton blooms. One of these mechanisms works in well-mixed environments and corresponds to the classical critical depth theory. The other mechanism is based on the rate of turbulent mixing. If turbulent mixing is less than a critical turbulence, phytoplankton growth rates exceed the vertical mixing rates, and a bloom develops irrespective of the depth of the upper water layer. These results demonstrate that phytoplankton blooms can develop in the absence of vertical water-column stratification. [KEYWORDS: LIGHT-LIMITED GROWTH, WATER COLUMN, SPRING BLOOM, DYNAMICS, MODEL, COMPETITION, OCEAN, LAKE, STRATIFICATION, CONSEQUENCES]
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