KNAW Repository

Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis

Kiers, E.T. and Duhamel, M. and Beesetty, Y. and Mensah, J.A. and Franken, O. and Verbruggen, E. and Fellbaum, C.R. and Kowalchuk, G.A. and Hart, M.M. and Bago, A. and Palmer, T.M. and West, S.A. and Vandenkoornhuyse, P. and Jansa, J. and Bücking, H. (2011) Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Science, 333, 880-882. ISSN 0036-8075.

[img]PDF - Published Version
Restricted to KNAW only

581Kb

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1208473

Abstract

Plants and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbionts interact in complex underground networks involving multiple partners. This increases the potential for exploitation and defection by individuals, raising the question of how partners maintain a fair, two-way transfer of resources. We manipulated cooperation in plants and fungal partners to show that plants can detect, discriminate, and reward the best fungal partners with more carbohydrates. In turn, their fungal partners enforce cooperation by increasing nutrient transfer only to those roots providing more carbohydrates. On the basis of these observations we conclude that, unlike many other mutualisms, the symbiont cannot be "enslaved." Rather, the mutualism is evolutionarily stable because control is bidirectional, and partners offering the best rate of exchange are rewarded.

Item Type:Article
Institutes:Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie (NIOO)
ID Code:9164
Deposited On:02 Sep 2011 02:00
Last Modified:24 Apr 2012 16:41

Repository Staff Only: item control page